Microscopic footage showing fruit fly anatomy and its life-cycle. Studies on the biology of the melon fruit fly, Dacus ciliatus Loew (Diptera:Trypanaeidae). Mostly, these are climatic zones of subtropics and mild temperate climate. EGGS. The melon fly can attack flowers, stem, root tissue, and fruit. In some regions of Transcaucasia, the original method is used - burying fruits that have reached 3-5 cm in diameter in the ground, later melons form under a layer of soil and flies cannot reach them. The combination of proper melon farming techniques using chemicals is the only effective method for successfully combating this pest. Life Cycle. Outside of malathion protein bait sprays and GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait, little information is available on other insecticides. Eggs of the Baluchistan melon fly (BMF) are able to survive harsh winter conditions. Prior to its invasion, cucurbit crops were widely grown for local consumption and some were exported to California. During the hot and dry season, the flies take shelter under humid and shady places and feed on honeydew of aphids infesting the fruit trees. El Nahal AKM, Azab AK, Swailem SM, 1971. The spots and tubercles have a characteristic brown hue. On them four transverse stripes of yellow color are visible. The life cycle from egg to adult requires 14-27 days. Problems in the designation of type of life cycle and the evolutionary significance of the life cycle … Melon fly damages melons, melon, watermelon, cucumbers, pumpkin. In some cases, infection of large fruits can occur. It is distributed throughout the Middle East and western Asia from Israel to India. The significant differences were observed in the life cycle of the pest when reared on bitter gourd, bottle gourd and watermelon. In addition, the use of insecticides such as Decis or Arrivo is recommended as a preventive measure. Life cycles of fruit flies . Wings have the usual diptera shape. The female fly lays its eggs under the skin of the watermelon. The mean incubation period varied from 1.7±0.12 days in 2002 and 1.4±0.16 days in 2003 at temperature range from 31.9 – 32.2°C in 2002 and 27.3 – 30.8°C while, relative humidity was 56.7 – 62.8% during 2002 and 60.6–81.2% during 2003. This species of flies is extremely fertile. A photo of a melon fly is shown below. The body length of the insect is about 0.6-0.7 cm, the wingspan is about 0.5 cm. The duration of total life cycle was 15.5 ± 1.952 and 13.66 ± 2.482 days during 2002 and 2003 in June and July. Insect prophylaxis is standard. Despite the fact that for a person a melon fly is not dangerous, there are still fruits that are affected by it, but it is not worth it. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, 54:231-241. The lower developmental threshold for melon fruit fly was recorded as 8.1° C (Keck, 1951). The plants are first treated in early spring, immediately after the formation of the first leaves, the second treatment is performed after the formation of the first loops. Females are able to make small holes on the rind of the fruit or on the shoots, from which after some time the juice begins to stand out, which they drink with the help of the proboscis. Development from egg to adult under summer conditions requires about 16 days. The maggots (larvae) are creamy-white, legless and attain a length of 10 mm. The female may lay as many as 1,000 eggs. It disperses northward annually, usually arriving in northern Florida in June and other southeastern states in July, where no more than three generations normally occur before cold weather kills the host plants. Large fruits, as a rule, do not attract flies. Illegal movement of fruit When using these drugs, you must strictly follow the instructions. The melon fly was first found in California in 1956 and has been captured sporadically over the years, but all infestations have been successfully eradicated. El-Sabah B, Fetoh A, Afia YI, 2004. In total, up to 3 generations of flies can appear during the season. Melon flies use at least 125 host plants. The average longevity of male was 12.74 ± 2.83 and 13.09 ± 2.37 days whereas, that of female was 15.03 ± 3.14 and 15.56 ± 2.67 days during both the years in June and July. The appearance of flies on the territory of Ukraine, Moldova, southern Russia. However, the melon fly was unable to complete its life cycle successfully on chayote showing that factors inhibiting larval development in melon fly could be attributed to biochemical constituents. There are total larval periods was 5.9±0.979 and 5.19 ± 0.245 days while, pupal period was 7.3 ± 0.23 and 7.03 ± 0.245 days during both the years in the month of June and July. In addition to traditional melons, watermelons and pumpkins, this pest can threaten about a hundred other plants. The Baluchistan Melon Fly (Myiopardalis pardalina) is a major pest of melons and other cucurbits. Even in the south of Asia you can find a melon fly. If the lesion has become widespread, it is recommended to treat the plants with an insecticide, for example, Karbofos or Fufanon. The life expectancy of adults is about two months. Life cycle. Outwardly, the melon fly is an unremarkable insect, of which many fly in the summer garden. The eyes located at the edges of the head are located at a relatively large distance from each other, in contrast to the ordinary fly, in which they practically converge in the upper part of the head. Apparently t… The main pests are melon fly larvae. Usually the color of the head is brighter. Their size is about a third smaller than the size of an “adult” larva. Pupae are dark yellow, almost brown. As a rule, a plant loses much more fluid from various mechanical damages. The African melon fly is widespread in the countries of the Mediterranean basin, the Caucasus and Central Asia. By that time, the soil temperature is warming up to +20 degrees Celsius. moving up to 200 km. Adult leaf miners are small yellow and black coloured flies, at most only several millimetres long. Here she "terrorizes" the agriculture of India and Pakistan. They are major pests of beans, bitter melon, wax gourd, cucumbers, edible gourds, eggplant, green beans, hyotan, luffa, melons, peppers, pumpkins, squashes, togan, tomatoes, watermelon, and zucchini. In Hawaii, it has caused serious damaged to melon, cucumber and tomato crops. The first signs of infection with fruit parasites is the appearance of many small spots or tubercles on them, which are formed in places where females bite the skin. It is distributed in Turkey, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Kyrgyzstan. The insect has a wide distribution range. For these purposes, Zenith means (in concentrations of 0.25 liters per 10 liters of water) or Rapira (2 liters of solution per 1 ha) are used. This is a medium-sized fly, mainly fawn yellow, less often brownish. The eggs of the melon fly are slender, white and measure 1/12 inch in length. Life Cycle The melon fruit fly remains active throughout the Varieties of melon flies live in many countries of the world with a warm climate. Fruit fly life cycle. Usually one egg is laid in one fruit. Insect larvae have the usual shape for flies. Larvae go through three instars feeding for about 4-7 days. The lifespan of an adult fly varies depending on many factors, and can be as long as 5–15 months. common name: melon fly scientific name: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae) Introduction - Synonyms - Distribution - Description - Life History - Damage - Hosts - Management - Selected References Introduction (Back to Top). bitter gourd, bottle gourd and watermelon. The spring years coincide with the formation of fruits in the spring. Eggs can also be laid into flowers, stems as well as exposed roots. Further, it is recommended to repeat the treatment after 2 weeks. The larval phase of the insect lasts from 1 to 2 weeks, in autumn - up to 2.5 weeks. An insignificant amount of the vital products of the larvae, as well as the flesh damaged by them, cause mild diarrhea. The maggots will then metamorphosis to pupae. This insect is able to destroy from 70 to 100% of the melon crop. When the adult females feed or lay eggs, they bore a hole using their toothed ovipositor, usually in the upper side of the leaf. About nine days are required for … A major route by which this pest may spread in trade or transport is through eggs and larvae hidden in fruiting bodies. When the time of pupation comes, the larva leaves the fetus and burrows into the ground to a depth of 13-15 cm. Since the pupae “mature” in the soil, weeding and loosening of the soil should be carried out regularly in order to remove the pupae to the surface, where they will be destroyed by birds or other insects. They are common in Lebanon, Iran and Iraq, Syria. ... fruit sucking moth, are responsible for the deterioration of fruit quality and the reduction of shelf life (Veeresh, 1989). Larvae can cause a significant decrease in crop quality in any area where they appear. An earlier planting is also recommended so that the fruits have time to form and “grow” with thick skin before the first summer of melon flies. The summer period stretches in time to 30 days. Their body is cylindrical. The head and body of the insect have slightly different shades. BIOLOGY. For the season is replaced by about 3 generations. MELON FLY . Oviposition response of melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) to different phenolic compounds Sharma, R. and Sohal, S. K. ABSTRACT The oviposition deterrent effects of four phenolic compounds (quercetin, rutin, gallic acid and tannic acid) were investigated against the melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae. Studies are currently being conducted on the efficacy of various foliar insecticides to Mediterranean fruit fly, melon fly, Malaysian fruit fly, and oriental fruit fly. The first spring years of the melon fly coincides with the formation of the first fruits, although the females are capable of reproduction already on the 10th day of their life. The fruit fly life cycle is a very interesting subject and is a necessary one to review if you have a few buzzing around your house. If there are many cracks, several different flies can lay eggs in a large fruit. Life Cycle A female melon fly usually lays eggs under the skin of host fruit; however, in its favored hosts in the family Cucurbitaceae, eggs may also be laid into flowers, stems, and exposed roots. Melon fly is one of the most unpleasant pests of any gourds. If infected fruits are found, they should be picked and destroyed as soon as possible (best burned). The life expectancy of adults is about two months. It has a 30 day life cycle when conditions are optimal. Melon fly is found in the tropical regions of Asia, a portion of east Africa, and on some Pacific islands, including Hawaii, USA. An option for such prevention is falling asleep on the beds with a layer of wood ash. The lower and upper developmental thresholds for eggs were 11.4 and 36.4° C (Messenger and Flitters, … At the same time, the nutritional pattern of insects is very interesting and depends on the sex of an adult. Usually, they lay their eggs as soon as the temperature rises above + 20-22 ° C. Females lay eggs in the fruit to a depth of 2-3 mm. On the head of the insect has a pair of short antennae. The nutrition of adult individuals has almost no effect on plant life, since the amount of juice they consume is negligible. The main danger of the melon fly is its high fecundity. The pupa matures for about 3 weeks, after which an adult insect is formed from it, which is ready for reproduction in 1-2 days. Singh et al. LIFE CYCLE Development period from egg to adult ranges from 12 to 28 days. A slightly pronounced taper is noticeable: to the posterior end, the larva can be significantly expanded. 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