Trees are semideciduous and much branched. The name Ziziphus is related to an Arabic word and ancient Greeks used the word ziziphon for the jujube. The species has a wide range of morphologies from shrubs to small or medium sized trees which might be erect, semierect or spreading. In Cucurbita maxima, Fe2O3 NPs have been observed to have a positive effect on leaf application. Figure 4.19. There are two major domesticated jujubes, Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. In the latter, superior morphotypes were not genetically related varieties, suggesting that the development and use of many clonal cultivars could maintain considerable genetic diversity. Seedling of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. They are well adapted to their local environments and provide harvest, even during droughts, when other staple crops fail and are used as emergency food during times of food shortage (Jamnadass et al., 2011; Teklehaimanot, 2007). The overexploitation of this tree’s bark is seriously threatening the resources of the species, with implications for the future source of the pharmaceutical product, as it is apparently unlikely that this drug will be synthesized, as well as for the montane ecosystems of sub-Saharan Africa. 4.18). (2010). In the case of cider, Valles Suarez et al. The potential gains from this selection will become apparent from ongoing provenance tests (Kalinganire et al., 2008). Among all agroresidues, Indian gooseberry leaves were found to be the best substrate for the production of tannase under SmF. From the indigenous fermentation of gabiroba (Campomanesia pubescens), pulp species very similar to those found in the grape fermentation were isolated, respectively Candida, Issatchenkia, and Pichia (Duarte et al., 2009b). Description of Jujube Fruit or Ber or Ziziphus mauritiana The tree is spiny and deciduous and normally grows up to 10-12m on an average. It revealed maximum tannase activity (41.64 U/mL) after 72 h of incubation with barbados cherry at pH 9.0 and 50°C. .. Thanks to the leaf application that will overcome the limitations of traditional fertilizers used today, the requirements for N, P, and K minerals will also be eliminated in the future. Nisar et al. This great tree gets nice glossy green leaves and in fall it produces the edible fruits. The apex is rounded, obtuse or subacute to emarginated, the base rounded, sometimes cuneate, mostly symmetrical or nearly so. and cowpea leaves (Vigna unguiculata), are relatively unknown in global markets. Jujube seedlings, inferior to the Chinese cultivars, were introduced into Europe at the beginning of the Christian era and carried to the United States in 1837. The leaves are antipyretic, whilst the fruit has been used to assist digestion and to treat tuberculosis. With international markets for indigenous fruits and nuts such as shea butter (V. paradoxa) and B. aegyptiaca, oil quality is important. In order to keep the plant in manageable shape and size, trees are trained properly during first 2-3 years to build a strong framework. The species were identified as Saccharomyces uvarum, S. cerevisiae, S. carlsbergensis, and S. ellipsoideus. Nidp et al. Table 2.1. Table 2.2. 1992. Leaf laminae are elliptic to ovate or nearly orbicular. It also stable over a wide pH range and temperature. (2007) reported that S. bayanus, was the predominant species at the beginning and the middle fermentation steps of the fermentation process, reaching a percentage of isolation between 33% and 41%, whereas S. cerevisiae took over the process in the final stages of fermentation. These beautiful plants are hardy to USDA zone 7, possibly colder, and they grow best in full sun to part shade. Also, the fraction exhibited an herbicidal effect against Lemna minor when evaluated at the concentration of 1000 mg/mL. Muhammad Ashar Ayub, ... Aisha A. Waris, in Plant Life Under Changing Environment, 2020. Ken Fern, ex DC., Guiera senegalensis J.F. Ziziphus mauritiana var. Cymes can be sessile or shortly pedunculate, peduncles 1–4 mm tomentose. The main ancient cultivation areas included the Deccan Plateau, which predates Gangetic civilization (Sankalia, 1958). ); wood for fuel, construction, household, and farm implements (e.g., B. aegyptiaca, Combretum glutinosum Perrott. (syn. [14] utilized a methanolic extract of some medicinal plants from Acacia nilotica, Azadirachta indica, Withania somnifera against some strains of bacteria with a profound result. Ziziphus / ˈ z ɪ z ɪ f ə s / is a genus of about 40 species of spiny shrubs and small trees in the buckthorn family, Rhamnaceae, distributed in the warm-temperate and subtropical regions throughout the world. The Rhamnaceae have fruits which are drupes or are dry and are closely related to another family, Vitaceae, which includes major economic species whose fruits are berries. Data on bush mango kernels from Cameroon, however, show that the price per kilogram fluctuates seasonally from a low in August (535 FCFA) to a high in February (1670 FCFA), with farmers receiving 50–72% of these urban prices in July–August but only 18–39% in August–October (Ndoye and Tchamou, unpublished). (Joshi et al., 2018; Jabeen et al., 2017; Kole et al., 2013). In winter, the shoots and fruit of the trees are an important feed source 7. It is now widely naturalised throughout the Old World tropics from Southern Africa through the Middle East to the Indian Subcontinent and China, Indomalaya, and into Australasia and the Pacific Islands. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Historical and Present Day Cultivation Areas (Pareek, 2001). NPs applied to the leaves enter through the cuticle or stoma of the leaves. In masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) wines, Nyanga et al. Alavijeh et al. (2007) identified species such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia fabianii. Jujubes are species of the genus Ziziphus Tourn. Cultivation spread south-eastwards through Malaysia, and eastwards through IndoChina and southern China, Africa, and Southern Arabia. Nano-CaCO3 combined with humus acid and peanut nitric acid compared to calcium, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash was found to be able to absorb nutrients. It not until 1908 that improved Chinese selections were introduced by the USDA. The species is believed to have originated in Indo-Malaysian region of South-East Asia. This condition disturbs normal metabolic processes in plants causing stunted growth and development (Tuteja, 2007; White and Brown, 2010; Jogaiah et al., 2012). These two species have been cultivated over vast areas of the world. Tulika Mishra, ... Aruna Bhatia, in Nuts and Seeds in Health and Disease Prevention, 2011. 4.19). Glucose and gallic acid are produced from tannic acid by the hydrolytic potential of tannase. The jujube originated in China where they have been cultivated for more than 4000 years and where there are over 400 cultivars. For example, cola nuts and the kernels of the bush mango (dika nut) are sold on a substantial regional scale. Flowers tend to have an acrid smell. In addition, wood density of Pro. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. Kosseva, in Science and Technology of Fruit Wine Production, 2017. Twin vicious thorns, 1 out, the other hooked down. Knowledge on the compositional data of these species is needed for their promotion and usage, e.g. These fodder banks have considerable economic importance with small bundles of shoots fetching good prices in local markets. Zn is an essential cofactor for enzymes in the synthesis of chlorophyll. S. cerevisiae, and I. orientalis, which were predominant in the fermented fruit pulp but were not detected in the unripe fruits. Cuticulitis of leaves, the first obstacle, restricts NPs to the size of < 5 nm. in nutrition-related projects, in programs and policies in the agricultural and health sectors as well as for labeling and trade regulations in local and international markets (Burlingame, 2004). Mohan, Viruthagiri, and Arunkumar (2014a, 2014b) applied RSM for the highest production of tannase by Aspergillus foetidus (MTCC 3557) using red gram husk as substrate under SmF with an optimum pH of 5.5, temperature of 35.5°C, tannin content of 3.1%, and fermentation period of 97 h. Varadharajan, Vadivel, Ramaswamy, Sundharamurthy, and Chandrasekar (2015) investigated various agrowastes as substrates for the production of tannase production from A. oryzae under SmF and found pomegranate rind extract as the best substrate with a tannase yield of 138.12 IU/mL. Ziziphus mauritiana (“Ber”) has been a useful fruit in India since antiquity – it was even mentioned in Yajurveda (Macdonell & Keith, 1958). Labels blew off pots in tropical storms. The presence and permanence of different yeast species throughout fruit fermentation, and consequently, their influence on the final product, is determined by the fermentation conditions, such as inoculum of Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter culture, the temperature of the fermentation, and the fruit juice composition. Baobab fruit pulp or marula fruit whole (Sclerocarya birrea) contain up to five times more vitamin C values compared to average vitamin C values of oranges (orange: 46.8 mg/100 g EP; baobab fruit pulp: 273 mg/100 g EP; marula fruit, whole: 167 mg/100 g EP) (Stadlmayr et al., 2013; FAO, 2012). Under saline conditions, plants face sodium ions toxicity due to their high solubility (Bhatt et al., 2008). Similarly, Matei and collaborators (data not reported) have isolated strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during pineapple fermentation. ), amaranth (Amaranth spp.) Morphology Indian jujube is a shrub or small thorny tree that can grow to a height of 3-15 m. In order to improve quality by genetic selection, studies have been made of phenotypic variation in fruit/seed traits across the Sahel. Distributed throughout the warm subtropics and tropics of South Asia (India). While examples of farmers growing trees for this purpose are known to the authors, there is very little published evidence of the scale of such activity in different areas of Africa. Occasionally the lower surface is glabrous. For example, fruits of baobab (A. digitata) are very rich in vitamin C, calcium and magnesium, while its leaves contain vitamins C and A. Data are scarce on the value of this trade but, e.g., the US$103 made by a marketeer in Zambia in September 1993 from the sale of Ziziphus mauritiana, one of the locally marketed fruits (Kwesiga et al., 1994), is significant when the average annual per capita income for Zambia is only $272. Ziziphus mauritiana . Native to Asia minor, and cultivation spread to Arabia, Egypt, along the North African coast, to Cyprus and Greece in Europe. This high concentration of Na+ starts competition with K+ influx that ultimately alters K+/Na+ ratio (Tuteja, 2007). Bhoite and Murthy (2015) used coffee pulp as substrate for maximum also production of tannase by Penicillium verrucosum at 96 h of fermentation period. In addition, it is expected that the introduced genes from the drier sites will increase the drought adaptation of the natural regeneration in the parkland species. Known Hazards. The roots have been used to treat coughs and headaches, whilst the bark has been used on boils, and for dysentery. It has been observed that the content of soluble sugar and protein is increased, especially in the stems and leaves of peanuts. The market value of the commercial product has been estimated at US$150×106 a−1 (Cunningham and Mbenkum, 1993Cunningham and Mbenkum, 1993aCunningham and Mbenkum, 1993b). Ziziphus mauritiana, also known asBer, Chinee Apple, Jujube, Indian plum and Masau is a tropical fruit tree species belonging to the family Rhamnaceae. Call us at 1 315 4971058. It is hardy to zone (UK) 6. Excellent and very comprehensive, though it … (2001) reported that 16 yeast strains isolated from grapefruit (Citrus paradis), orange (Citrus sinensis) and pineapple (Ananas comosus) were characterized using standard microbiological procedures. The cola nut trade in 1981 was reported to be 22,500  t (Nkongmeneck, 1985) of which 20,400 t entered commerce, mostly being traded to the north where it is the only stimulant allowed to Muslims. The efficacy of leaf sprays of Mn, Mo, and Ni fertilizers has been proven to eliminate nutritional deficiencies and increase crop yield. The content of nutrients in the shoot and root of the peanut increased Ca by 0.72% and 0.32%, N by 1.3% and 0.43%, P by 0.08% and 0.04%, and K by 0.49% and 0.014%, respectively (Liu et al., 2005). Different agroindustrial wastes such as red gram husk, coffee husk, coconut powder, green gram husk, ground nut waste, cotton seed waste, wheat bran, tamarindus seed powder, rice bran, Cicer arietinum, cashew apple bagasse, and corn powder were used for tannase production by Aspergillus terreus. long, straight, the shorter one decurved. It is in flower from April to May, and the seeds ripen in October. As there are strong latitudinal and longitudinal gradients in mean annual rainfall in the Sahel, provenance/progeny tests are being used to compare the performance of germplasm collected from sites across these gradients. Most angiosperms are sensitive to salinity as their Na+/K+ ion channels are not fully functional thus opening an era of genetically engineered halotolerant plants to cope with osmotic stress (Cushman, 2001). To sense and cope with the detrimental effects of ion toxicity, plants have multiple physiological, mechanical, chemical, and biological mechanisms (Munns, 2005; Khan and Khan, 2014). africana, V. paradoxa) in their parklands to compare the performance of their local germplasm with germplasm collected in drier sites (J. C. Weber, personal communication, 2011). Ziziphus mauritiana is a spiny, evergreen shrub or small tree up to 15 m high, with trunk 40 cm or more in diameter; spreading crown; stipular spines and many drooping branches. NPs from the stoma can pass through the vascular system of the cell through apoplastic or sympathetic paths > 10 nm. Ziziphus mauritiana, also known as Indian jujube, Indian plum Chinese date, Chinee apple, and dunks is a tropical fruit tree species belonging to the family Rhamnaceae. The “parkland” is the most common agroforestry system in these countries and combines crops, trees, and livestock. The common name of Ziziphus mauritiana is bor, belongs to family Rhamnaceae. Sabu, Pandey, Daud, and Szakacs (2005) utilized palm kernel cake and tamarind seed powder for the production of tannase by A. niger. Close up of flowers,immature fruit, leaves. (the Indian jujube or ber), and Ziziphus jujuba Mill. It has a round, spreading crown. Higher soil concentration of mineral nutrients creates hyperionic condition that disrupts plant homeostatic control that results in ionic stress and/or toxicity (Deinlein et al., 2014; Sha Valli Khan et al., 2014). These have found significant variation both amongst and within provenances (Abasse et al., 2011; Ræbild et al., 2011). In addition, positive results were obtained by applying N, P, and K fertilizers on the leaves. Hundreds of indigenous fruit trees species and traditional vegetables exist in sub-Saharan Africa; however, unlike exotic species, indigenous fruits such as baobab (Adansonia digitata), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana) and traditional vegetables such as African nightshade (Solanum spp. Despite a reduction in the production of crops under the trees, the overall returns per hectare are increased by 6500 FCFA ha−1 (250 FCFA=US$1) with one B. paradoxum and one P. biglobosa per hectare and by 13,600 FCFA ha−1 if the number of B. paradoxum is increased to eight (Bonkoungou, 1995).

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