Ida B. Wells-Barnett (1862 - 1931) By The Gale Group. A story broke January 16, 1892, in the Cleveland Gazette, describing a wrongful conviction of a sexual affair between a married White woman, Julia Underwood (née Julie Caroline Wells), and a single Black man, William Offet (1854–1914) of Elyria, Ohio. "[20], Wells' anti-lynching commentaries in the Free Speech had been building, particularly with respect to lynchings and imprisonment of Black men suspected of raping White women. Ida B. Like Wells, he spoke widely against lynchings and for the civil rights of African Americans. [20], The White grocer Barrett returned the following day, March 3, 1892, to the People's Grocery with a Shelby County Sheriff's Deputy, looking for William Stewart. [4], In June 2020, during the George Floyd protests in Tennessee, protesters occupied the area outside the Tennessee State Capitol, re-dubbing it "Ida B. But, given power relationships, it was much more common for White men to take sexual advantage of poor Black women. [118], In 1988, she was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame. Postal Service dedicated a 25¢ stamp commemorating Wells in a ceremony at the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago. Miss Barnett helped edit her mother's autobiography, Crusade for Justice: the Autobiography of Ida B. Wells continued to be an activist throughout the remainder of her career. 2020 National Geographic Partners, LLC. Ida B. Although she tried to balance her roles as a mother and as a national activist, it was alleged that she was not always successful. Ida B. he way to right wrongs is to turn the light of truth upon them. [95][96][a] Illinois was the first state east of the Mississippi to give women these voting rights. Wells of Chicago, died Aug. 4 in Los Angeles. She was interred in the Oak Wood Cemetary in Chicago. [122], On February 1, 1990, at the start of Black History Month in the U.S., the U.S. Wells", "How These Women Raised $42k in a Day for an Ida B. [19], On March 2, 1892, a young Black male youth named Armour Harris was playing a game of marbles with a young White male youth named Cornelius Hurst in front of the People's Grocery. If Southern men are not careful, a conclusion might be reached which will be very damaging to the moral reputation of their women. Wells was born to James Wells and Elizabeth "Lizzie" (Warrenton) Wells on July 16, 1962, in Mississippi. Wells married Ferdinand Barnett in 1895 and was thereafter known as Ida B. Wells-Barnett. [10] The previous year, the Supreme Court had ruled against the federal Civil Rights Act of 1875 (which had banned racial discrimination in public accommodations). The railroad company appealed to the Tennessee Supreme Court, which reversed the lower court's ruling in 1887. Following the end of the Civil War, her father, who as an enslaved person had been the carpenter on a plantation, was active in Reconstruction period politics in Mississippi. "The colored race multiplies like the locusts of Egypt," she had said, and "the grog shop is its center of power. Wells Club in her honor. Du Bois, and more traditionally minded women activists, Wells often came to be seen as too radical. In 1862, Ida B. If Ida B. For webquest or practice, print a copy of this quiz at the Ida B. [60] Despite these attacks in the White press, Wells had nevertheless gained extensive recognition and credibility, and an international audience of White supporters of her cause. "[22], The event led Wells to begin investigating lynchings using investigative journalist techniques. Ida B. Wells-Barnett (1862 - 1931) By The Gale Group. Wells' Lasting Impact on Chicago Politics and Power", "18th Annual Ida B. [9][108], Wells died of uremia (kidney failure) in Chicago on March 25, 1931, at the age of 68. When Wells learned that Terrell had agreed to exclude Wells, she called it "a staggering blow". In the eyes of the FBI, this made her a “dangerous negro agitator.” In the annals of history, it makes her an icon. Ida B. Journalist. [56], On the last night of her second tour, the London Anti-Lynching Committee was established – reportedly the first anti-lynching organization in the world. Once slavery ended, Ida attended Shaw University (now Rust College) along with her mother who attended school long enough to learn how to read the Bible. [6] Before the Emancipation Proclamation was issued, Wells' parents were enslaved to Spires Boling, an architect, and the family lived in the structure now called Bolling–Gatewood House, which has become the Ida B. Wells-Barnett Museum. Ida Bell Wells was an African-American journalist and reformer. Wells Women’s Club and Alpha Suffrage Club, the first suffrage club for black women. "[16] Wells was ordered to pay court costs. Following the funerals of her parents and brother, friends and relatives decided that the five remaining Wells children should be separated and sent to various foster homes. Wells Plaza". Wells With Chicago's First Monument to an African American Woman", "Jewish Group Helps Dedicate Ida Wells-Barnett Marker", "Ida B. Ida B. "[87][88][89], Although Willard and her prominent supporter Lady Somerset were critical of Wells' comments, Wells was able to turn that into her favor, portraying their criticisms as attempts by powerful White leaders to "crush an insignificant colored woman. Many of the articles published at the time of her return to the United States were hostile personal critiques, rather than reports of her anti-lynching positions and beliefs. Ms. Wells was disappointed that not much information was written about her so she wrote two autobiographies before her death: The Crusade for Justice: The Autobiography of Ida B. [103], Instead of going to the back with other African Americans, however, Wells waited with spectators as the parade was underway, and stepped into the White Illinois delegation as they passed by. Ida B Wells Wells married Chicago lawyer and newspaper editor Ferdinand Barnett and, uncommonly for the time, hyphenated her name rather than take his. Ida B. Angry about the previous day's mêlée, Barrett responded that "Blacks were thieves" and hit McDowell with a pistol. Wells resisted this proposition. Her reaction to the higher court's decision revealed her strong convictions on civil rights and religious faith, as she responded: "I felt so disappointed because I had hoped such great things from my suit for my people. 91 likes. Wells was born 5 or 10 or 20 years earlier; we may not be telling this story. Wells (1862-1931) was a newspaper editor and journalist who went on to lead the American anti-lynching crusade. A White mob destroyed her newspaper office and presses as her investigative reporting was carried nationally in Black-owned newspapers. Around 2:30 a.m. on the morning of March 9, 1892, 75 men wearing black masks took Moss, McDowell, and Stewart from their jail cells at the Shelby County Jail to a Chesapeake and Ohio rail yard one mile north of the city and shot them dead. She was active in women's rights and the women's suffrage movement, establishing several notable women's organizations. This sort of close working relationship between a wife and husband was unusual at the time, as women often played more traditional domestic roles in a marriage. Ida B. Barnett, 86, the last surviving child of crusading journalist and famed civil rights leader Ida B. The two male youths got into an argument and a fight during the game. Wells Gets Her Street—City Council Approves Renaming Congress in Her Honor", "Great-Granddaughter of Ida B. The WCTU was a predominantly White women's organization, with branches in every state and a growing membership. Soon after moving to Memphis, Wells was hired in Woodstock by the Shelby County school system. Ida B. Wells-Barnett was a founding organizer of this premier civil rights organization in 1909. Ida and Ferdinand were a activist team, standing against racial and gender discrimination. Both women had read of the particularly gruesome lynching of Henry Smith in Texas and wanted to organize a speaking tour to call attention to American lynchings. And Ida B Wells had been investigating lynchings and writing news articles for more than a decade before the organization came to exist. Ms. Wells was disappointed that not much information was written about her so she wrote two autobiographies before her death: The Crusade for Justice: The Autobiography of Ida B. [117], In 1941, the Public Works Administration (PWA) built a Chicago Housing Authority public housing project in the Bronzeville neighborhood on the South Side of Chicago; it was named the Ida B. Ida B. [152], Wells' life is the subject of Constant Star (2002), a widely performed musical drama by Tazewell Thompson,[153] who was inspired to write it by the 1989 documentary Ida B. Suffragist. Wells continued to be an activist throughout the remainder of her career. Here is what Michelle, Daniel and David Duster, the great-great grandchildren of Ida B. [121] In 2011, Wells was inducted into the Chicago Literary Hall of Fame for her writings. [150], In 1999, a staged reading of the play Iola's Letter, written by Michon Boston (née Michon Alana Boston; born 1962), was performed at Howard University in Washington, D.C., under the direction of Vera J. Katz,[b][151] including then-student Chadwick Boseman (Black Panther) among the cast. Wells Elementary, Nashville, Tennessee. After moving to Tennessee when she was about 20, Wells began writing for Black newspapers, speaking out against segregated schools—which which forced Black children to go to separate schools—and other forms of discrimination in the southern states. Parent University Session: Food and Financial Resources. Looking closely, it is also worn around the edges (Fig. She noted that White people assumed that any relationship between a White woman and a Black man was a result of rape. She believed that during slavery, White people had not committed as many attacks because of the economic labour value of slaves. She started a number of clubs and organizations including the Ida B. Writing to the president of the association, Mary Terrell, Chicago organizers of the event stated that they would not cooperate in the meeting if it included Wells. It concluded, "We think it is evident that the purpose of the defendant in error was to harass with a view to this suit, and that her persistence was not in good faith to obtain a comfortable seat for the short ride. Ida B. Wells was the founder/co-founder of National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, National Association of Colored Women's Clubs, Alpha Suffrage Club, National Afro-American Council Frederick Douglass praised her work: "You have done your people and mine a service ... What a revelation of existing conditions your writing has been for me. Wells' Birthday", "Ida B. 9. Wells: An Intimate Portrait of the Activist as a Young Woman (which was actually later published and edited by her daughter). [84] Like all suffragists she believed in women's right to vote, but she also saw enfranchisement as a way for Black women to become politically involved in their communities and to use their votes to elect African Americans, regardless of gender, to influential political offices. The Illinois Presidential and Municipal Suffrage Bill of 1913 (see Women's suffrage in Illinois) gave women in the state the right to vote for presidential electors, mayor, aldermen and most other local offices; but not for governor, state representatives or members of Congress. (Catherine Meeks is the retired Clara Carter Acree Distinguished Professor of Socio-Cultural Studies at Wesleyan College in Macon, Georgia, and director of the Absalom Jones Center for Racial Healing. [17], In 1889, Thomas Henry Moss, Sr. (1853–1892), an African American, opened People's Grocery, which he co-owned. She helped in the founding of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). 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