For each color group, five representative watermelon accessions MAS results are displayed in Figure S5. doi: 10.1007/s10068-012-0068-3, Liu, H., Jiao, J. Q., Liang, X. J., Liu, J., Meng, H. W., Chen, S. X., et al. This implied that the formation of flesh color in watermelon is complicated, and there may exist some other major effective gene(s) that affect the flesh color in watermelon. Bioinformatics 25 (15), 1972–1973. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msy096, Latowski, D., Kuczynska, P., Strzalka, K. (2011). The segregation of these three populations further verified that one major recessive gene controlled red flesh color and lycopene content. J. Hunan Agric. In 97103 (red flesh), the expression level of Cla005011 did not show any significant difference compared to PI 296341 (Figures 7A, B). Only a few foods contain high amounts of lycopene. Altschul, S. F., Gish, W., Miller, W., Myers, E. W., Lipman, D. J. J. Hered. Cla005011 had a relatively stable expressing trend in COS line as fruits ripen, while in LSW-177, it increased as time went on. Agric. Lycopene (C40H56) is an open-polyene chain lacking the β-ionone ring structure with 13 double bonds. Genet. Breed. (1997). It was also likely that the difference in protein levels or functionality may regulate the color of the fruit (Wang et al., 2016). Plant Sci., 08 October 2019 New Phytol. Red tomato is also a high-lycopene-content plant, which reportedly undergoes pigment development similar to that of watermelon (Grassi et al., 2013); however, the two fruits are still suggested to have different regulatory systems in their carotenoid biosynthesis pathways. It was also the position of the restriction site of the CAPS marker WII04EBsaHI-6 (Figure S3). Genet. 94 (1), 169–191. (Mosc.) Genet. 2 and Pop. 63 (8), 3097–3108. B., O’Halloran, D. M., Cosman, K. M., et al. Carotenoid accumulation and carotenogenic gene expression during fruit development in novel interspecific inbred squash lines and their parents. 2 and Pop. Mol. Red, ripe flesh is the best indicator of the sweetest and most nutritious watermelon. Molecular mapping and candidate gene analysis for yellow fruit flesh in cucumber. "They … In our research, different shades of flesh color in one color system validate the same MAS results. Genet. Theor. Appl. High lycopene foods include guavas, cooked tomatoes, watermelon, grapefruit, papaya, sweet red peppers, persimmon, asparagus, red cabbage, and mangos. A., McKenzie, G., Sharma, S. K., Hedley, P. E., et al. 129, 717–728. Development of a co-dominant CAPS marker for allelic selection between canary yellow and red watermelon based on SNP in lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) gene. Based on the genotyping results, the CAPS markers WII04EBsaHI-6 and W04EII08-38 cosegregated with red and pink flesh color in these accessions, except in two PI lines (PI 193963 and PI 601228, which had yellowish flesh but exhibited the same restriction enzyme fragments as the red and pink plants). LCYB clusters I and II contained 13 and 9 genes, respectively. Figure S2 | Genetic linkage map with the F2 generation (359 plants) derived from a cross between garden female and PI 186490. doi: 10.1016/S0014-5793(97)01355-0, Meng, L., Li, H., Zhang, L., Wang, J. 129, 1247–1256. Basic local alignment search tool. Watermelon contains cucurbitacin E, a triterpene anti-inflammatory phytonutrient, and unusual amounts of the amino acid citrulline. Two kinds of assisted selection markers for red flesh color in watermelon were generated by Bang et al. Deciphering genetic factors that determine melon fruit-quality traits using rna-seq–based high-resolution QTL and EQTL mapping. tomato or watermelon. We performed whole genome resequencing (WGRS) of 24 watermelons with different flesh colors to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to high lycopene content. 15, 247. doi: 10.1186/s12870-015-0661-8, Cuevas, H. E., Staub, J. E., Simon, P. W., Zalapa, J. E., McCreight, J. D. (2008). Lycopene is non-toxic and is commonly found in the diet, Genet. Recently, QTLs for lycopene content (LCYB) in watermelon was identified on chromosome 4 [8, 33] and for β-carotene on chromosome 1 . Breed. doi: 10.1093/jhered/93.1.77, Wang, L. Y., Meng, X., Yang, D. Y., Ma, N. N., Wang, G. D., Meng, Q. W. (2014). doi: 10.16861/j.cnki.zggc.2012.03.001, Zalapa, J. E., Staub, J. E., McCreight, J. D., Chung, S. M., Cuevas, H. (2007). 127 (9), 1917–1933. Inheritance of several characters in watermelons. Developmental changes in gene expression drive accumulation of β-lycopene and carotene in watermelon. doi: 10.1007/s10681-008-9699-0, Lv, P., Li, N., Liu, H., Gu, H. H., Zhao, W. E. (2015). Sun-fried tomatoes are the best dietary sources of lycopene. Watermelon’s meat as well as its skin contains a pretty high phytonutrient in … (2018). doi: 10.1007/s00122-015-2660-4, Gonzalo, M. J., Oliver, M., Garcia-Mas, J., Monfort, A., Dolcet-Sanjuan, R., Katzir, N., et al. Comparative genomics reveals candidate carotenoid pathway regulators of ripening watermelon fruit. Food Res. Cultivars 'PWM25-4', 'Arun', 'Kiran' and 'Kareena' were found to be the most promising ones with highest lycopene content, antioxidant capacity and CI. Agric. doi: 10.21273/JASHS.127.4.545, Feng, D., Ling, W. H., Duan, R. D. (2010). The same trend was also observed for WII04E08-38. Bin mapping of genomic and EST-derived SSRs in melon (Cucumis melo L.). MATSUM & NAKAI] using RAPD, RFLP and ISSR markers. doi: 10.1093/pcp/pct170, Tzuri, G., Zhou, X. J., Chayut, N., Yuan, H., Portnoy, V., Meir, A., et al. Z., Davis, A. R., Baloch, A. M., Luan, F. S. (2015). 30, 335–344. doi: 10.1007/s00122-015-2563-4, Capella-Gutierrez, S., Silla-Martinez, J. M., Gabaldon, T. (2009). Interaction of flesh color genes in watermelon. The nonsynonymous SNP locus in Cla005011 in the 676th coding region (Figure 5 and Figure S3) may be the key site causing the change in enzyme activity, which may still need further investigation. Xanthophyll cycle—a mechanism protecting plants against oxidative stress. The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2019.01240/full#supplementary-material. 3, there were approximately 22 full red fleshed individuals out of 116 plants. The highest lycopene amount was found in watermelons (Citrullus lanatus var. MEGA X: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis across computing platforms. doi: 10.1016/j.cj.2015.01.001, Nakkanong, K., Yang, J. H., Zhang, M. F. (2012). Hortic. Crop J. 89, 50–53. Appl. Genet. J. Hered. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Plants with pink and red flesh colors showed enzyme-cut fragments of 1,182 and 665 bp for WII04EBsaHI-6 and 566 bp for W04EII08-38, while the yellowish- and white- fleshed accessions showed fragments of 1,847 and 287 or 279 bp for these two markers (since the resolution ratio of the 1% agarose gel was 100 bp, the 287- and 279-bp products appeared as one band) (Figure S4). doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2004.07.011, Takemura, M., Maoka, T., Misawa, N. (2014). Linkage map of Cucumis melo including phenotypic traits and sequence-characterized genes. The shaded area on linkage group 4 indicates the location of QTLs associated with red flesh color trait. MapChart: Software for the graphical presentation of linkage maps and QTLs. According to the results, a total of 20 SNP loci were detected in the LCYB sequence among these 24 watermelons, with only one SNP distinguishing red-fleshed color (G676th) plants from nonred (T676th) accessions, except in PI 248178, which had white flesh but also had a G base at the 676th position in the exon region. Breed. Hortic. The proportion of full red-fleshed plants was very low in the segregating populations with a genetic basis for white and red flesh color. Based on these results, we speculated that the main effective genes could determine the formation of the red color system (pink gradually changing to red) and the yellow color system (from pale yellow to canary yellow). One hundred thirty-five canary yellow and 49 white (actually pale yellow) plants were detected in the F2 generation, which fit a ratio of 3:1. 35, 64. doi: 10.1007/s11032-015-0263-z, Lu, S., Van Eck, J., Zhou, X., Lopez, A. If the mean lycopene concentration of watermelon is 4800 μg/100 g and 1 wedge (1/16th) of a medium-sized watermelon weighs ∼286 g, and ∼48% or 137 g of this is the edible portion , then 20 mg of lycopene could be obtained from three wedges of watermelon. (2015). Food Sci. Genet. trimAl: a tool for automated alignment trimming in large-scale phylogenetic analyses. Lycopene content ranged from 03.46 to 8.00 mg/100 g fresh weight. Res. Am. (2015). (2011). Restriction enzyme digestion of W04EII08-38, WII04EKpnI-1, and WII04E07-40 (MluI, KpnI, and MboII) was more cost-effective than that of WII04EBsaHI-6 and Phe226 (BsaHI). AD offered the germplasm. Genetic mapping of a major codominant QTL associated with β-carotene accumulation in watermelon. Thus, investi-gating the lycopene profile, quality traits, and other morphological characters of watermelon genetic resources (2005). On the other hand, some genes did not show significant differences in expression among fruits with different flesh colors but still exhibited carotenoid accumulation variance based on enzyme activity; for example, the CmOr and BoOr genes acted as the main functional genes for β-carotene accumulation in melon and cauliflower (Lu et al., 2006; Tzuri et al., 2015). 418, 91–97. Construction of a linkage map and QTL analysis of horticultural traits for watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (THUNB.) 3, two flesh colors (red and red mixed with white) appeared in individuals homozygous for the same alleles as garden parent, while plants with other flesh colors carried heterozygous alleles, similar to the F1 generation. 97, 177–185. Based on the preliminary mapping information, new CAPS markers were developed to narrow down the region from 392,077 bp to 41,233 bp. Only two full red-fleshed plants were detected in Pop. (2016). 215 (3), 403–410. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Lycopene (from the neo-Latin Lycopersicum, the tomato species) is a bright red carotenoid hydrocarbon found in tomatoes and other red fruits and vegetables, such as red carrots, watermelons, grapefruits, and papayas, but it is not present in strawberries or cherries. Theor. Advances in research on carotenoids in watermelon flesh. Redox Rep. 16, 78–90. (2013). doi: 10.1111/nph.14257, Zhang, H., Wang, H., Guo, S., Ren, Y., Gong, G., Weng, Y., et al. Genet. Expression of carotenogenic genes during the development and ripening of watermelon fruit. Copyright © 2019 Wang, Qiao, Fang, Sun, Gao, Davis, Liu and Luan. Lycopene content varied widely among cultivars and types, but the seedless ones tended to have more. 15 (5), 266–274. The results from the HPLC data of Pop. J. Splign: algorithms for computing spliced alignments with identification of paralogs. Studies on the lycopene content of watermelon germplasm collections are very scarce (Pinto et al., 2001) and mostly limited to commercial cultivars (Kalaivani, 2015; Nagal et al., 2012; Perkins-Veazie and Collins, 2003). Euphytica 186, 329–342. Inflamm. Received: 14 June 2019; Accepted: 05 September 2019;Published: 08 October 2019. 93 (1), 77–78. 29, 333–347. Mol. Theor. Breed. Plant Sci. Biochem. The range of lycopene content among diploid watermelon fruit was from 33.2 to 54.8 mg kg" with a mean of44.1mg kg", The In our research, the segregation ratio was somewhat different from that of the previous study, which could be explained by the use of different parental lines. doi: 10.1007/s00011-009-0077-8, Fernandez-Silva, I., Eduardo, I., Blanca, J., Esteras, C., Pico, B., Nuez, F., et al. FEBS Lett. in response to rootstock-scion combinations under various environmental conditions. (2012). For the CAPS markers WII04EKpnI-1 and WII04E07-40, the PCR amplicons were 517 and 618 bp for all 81 accessions. Red flesh color and lycopene content are major influences on watermelon quality and consumption. 174, 52–59. 118, 139–150. 10:1240. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2019.01240. 54, 2593–2597. Supplementary Figure S4a was the genotyping results of CAPS markers WII04EBsaHI-6; figure S4b was the genotyping results of CAPS markers WII04E08-38. doi: 10.1270/jsbbs1951.13.235, Silberstein, L., Kovalski, I., Brotman, Y., Perin, C., Dogimont, C., Pitrat, M., et al. On average, watermelon has about 40 per cent more lycopene than raw tomatoes. Indeed, research showed that lycopene is better absorbed by the body when tomatoes are processed. 128 (10), 2019–2035. Euphytica 202 (3), 411–426. Figure S5 | Marker analysis for red, yellowish and white flesh color watermelon accessions using CAPS marker WII04EKpnI-1 and WII04E07-40. Lycopene suppresses LPS-induced NO and IL-6 production by inhibiting the activation of ERK, p38MAPK, and NF-k B in macrophages. Renowned Nutritionist, Dr. Shilpa Arora shares, 'Watermelons consist of 94 percent water, lycopene, potassium and a lot of other nutrients. We also performed a transcriptome analysis of COS and LSW-177 at different time points throughout the whole growth period with the RNA of pulp, the expression level of Cla005011 was not the main reason for red and nonred flesh color formation. 37 (12), 146. doi: 10.1007/s11032-017-0747-0, Campbell, R., Pont, S. D. A., Morris, J. doi: 10.1021/jf052066p, Shimotsuma, M. (1963). Bananas were fourth in accumulated lycopene (31.189±0.001mg/kg). Biol. Soc. (B) BioProject: PRJNA270773 (RPKM of PI 296341), sample DAP10, DAP18, DAP26, DAP34, DAP42, DAP50. Appl. To analyze the genetic inheritance patterns of red flesh color in watermelon, two F2 populations and one BC population were tested in our research. Euphytica 200 (3), 363–378. 2, and in Pop. Theor. Figure S4 | Marker analysis for red, yellowish and white flesh color watermelon accessions using CAPS marker WII04EBsaHI-6 and WII04E08-38. QTL IciMapping: integrated software for genetic linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus mapping in biparental populations. Simple-sequence repeat markers used in merging linkage maps of melon (Cucumis melo L.). Although several genes and QTLs responsible for flesh color variations have been identified, applicable markers in watermelon breeding for red flesh color or high lycopene content remain limited and further polymorphic markers need to be … Theor. Fruit-specific RNAi-mediated suppression of SlNCED1 increases both lycopene and β-carotene contents in tomato fruit. (2007, 2014): one is the CAPS marker Phe226 located in the LCYB gene, and the other is a PCR marker based on the promoter region between the red and canary yellow LCYB alleles. 25, 1–4. Genet. doi: 10.1007/s00299-014-1627-2, Wang, N., Liu, S., Gao, P., Luan, F. S. (2016). Lycopene is currently the most powerful antioxidant which has been measured in food and is thought to play a role in preventing cancer, heart disease, and macular degeneration. In this study, Cla005011 seemed to be the best candidate gene for lycopene accumulation and red flesh color formation. Cla005012 was annotated as the kinesin-like protein that seemed to be not related with lycopene accumulation. Genet. Mol. Overexpression of tomato GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase gene in tobacco improves tolerance to chilling stress. doi: 10.1007/s00122-014-2349-0, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Capel, C., del Carmen, A. F., Alba, J. M., Lima-Silva, V., Hernandez-Gras, F., Salinas, M., et al. Overcome Impotence. HortScience 127, 545–557. 35 (6), 1547–1549. doi: 10.1007/s00122-010-1327-4, Henderson, W., Scott, G., Wehner, T. C. (1998). Biol. doi: 10.1105/tpc.106.046417, Luan, F. S., Delannay, I., Staub, J. E. (2008). Inheritance and mapping of the ore gene controlling the quantity of β-carotene in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) endocarp. Qualitative inheritance of rind pattern and flesh color in watermelon. (2006). Euphytica 164, 445–461. The white flesh color trait was incomplete dominant to the red flesh trait based on the fact that the two F1 generations of Pop. In the research of Zhang and colleagues, watermelon lines 97103 (red-fleshed) and PI 296341-FR (light yellowish green flesh color, which is regarded as a white-fleshed parental line) were used to form F2 and F9-RIL populations. The white-fleshed trait would be more complicated than pale yellow and red, which still needs further investigation. Food Chem. PI 186490, with a pure white flesh color, was different from COS and PI 296341-FR. It is worth noting that CW and AQ are co–first authors. Cytogenetical studies in the genus Citrullus. Trends Plant Sci. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. © 2016 The Author(s). Role of ascorbic acid in photosynthesis. The ratio of red alleles and nonred alleles was 1:3 and 1:1 for Pop. The SSR marker SSR17292 also showed different polymorphisms in the 81 watermelon accessions but did not cosegregate with flesh color. Appl. 1. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. 60 (23), 5936–5944. (2016). 213 (3), 1208–1221. doi: 10.1038/ng.2470, Gusmini, G., Wehner, T. C. (2006). High-level expression of a novel chromoplast phosphate transporter ClPHT4;2 is required for flesh color development in watermelon. The homozygous recessive allele of the py gene could inhibit the formation of canary yellow, yielding a pale yellow flesh color. In previous research, the red flesh color trait in watermelon was found to be controlled by a single recessive gene (Henderson et al., 1998, Bang et al., 2010). (2012). Map-based cloning, identification and characterization of the w gene controlling white immature fruit color in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). lanatus), jackfruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus), bananas (Musa acuminata), grapes (Vitis vinifera), oranges (Citrus reticulata) and papayas (Carica papaya). The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation, to any qualified researcher. Lycopene is an antioxidant carotenoid compound occurring in plants. With these marker codes, we can easily distinguish the three types of flesh color in watermelon. After screening for typical lycopene cyclase genes in different species of cucurbitaceous crops (cucumber, melon, watermelon, gourd, pumpkin) and tomato, 33 homologous genes were filtered, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA X (Kumar et al., 2018). For white-fleshed plants, the codes were not uniform, and heterozygous loci were present in some plants, but the code of each white-fleshed watermelon was quite different from those of the pink, red, and yellowish accessions. (1900). doi: 10.1016/S0022-2836(05)80360-2, Bang, H., Kim, S., Leskovar, D., King, S. (2007). VI. 79, 282–289. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btp348, Cazzonelli, C. I., Pogson, B. J. (Amsterdam) 124, 368–375. 1 implied that a major effect gene controlled this trait. Mapping of genetic loci that regulate quantity of beta-carotene in fruit of US Western Shipping melon (Cucumis melo L.). 82 (2), 267–279. Tomato species with higher levels of lycopene accumulation were used in the process of constructing the phylogenetic tree, and the LCYB genes of watermelon were further related to that of tomato. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Results indicate that watermelon is a good source of dietary lycopene and there exists significant variation that … Papayas were the third in accumulated lycopene (45.342±0.000 mg/kg). From the top to the bottom was 5,000, 3,000, 2,000, 1,000, 750, 500, 250, 100 bp fragments, respectively. J. Lycopene is a tiny nutrient with numerous health-giving qualities. Soothes Muscles. kg− 1. Carotenoid content of 50 watermelon cultivars. To estimate the general combining ability (GCA), special combining ability (SCA) and heritability of watermelon lycopene the … The lycopene content of tomatoes was measured to be between 40.19 and 108.06 mg/kg FW, while that of watermelons was between 24.23 and 69.12 mg/kg FW. Fruit Sci. Genet. Lycopene content and flesh color are important traits determined by a network of carotenoid metabolic pathways in watermelon. Univ. Two yellowish, three white, and one pink-fleshed watermelon accessions did not match with the MAS results, and the sequence comparison also showed that PI 248178 had a white flesh color but was encoded by the same LCYB sequence as that of the red accessions. sweetness (Rushing et al., 2001). Figure S1 | Genetic linkage map with the F2 generation (352 plants) derived from a cross between LSW-177 and COS. Comparative fruit coloration in watermelon and tomato. According to our results, the CAPS marker WII04EBsaHI-6 and Phe226 shared the same location, and we also implemented a forward genetics strategy to demonstrate the significance of LCYB in lycopene accumulation in watermelon (red to nonred). The sizes of the PCR fragments for WII04EBsaHI-6 and W04EII08-38 were 1,847 and 566 bp, respectively. Contains Nutrients and Beneficial Plant Compounds. A total of 33 homologous genes were divided into three clusters. BMC Genomics 14 (1), 781. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-14-781, Guo, S. G., Zhang, J. G., Sun, H. H., Salse, J., Lucas, W. J., Zhang, H. Y., et al. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. (2003). Direct 3 (1), 20. doi: 10.1186/1745-6150-3-20, Kumar, S., Stecher, G., Li, M., Knyaz, C., Tamura, K. (2018). Watermelon has a natural pigment called beta-cryptoxanthin that may protect … 3 were yellowish mixed with white, not full white. Inheritance and InDel markers closely linked to petal color gene (cpc-1) in Brassica oleracea. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. J. To verify the applicability of these markers in different genetic populations and watermelon accessions, the 11 CAPS markers in the effective region were used for genotyping in Pop. Studies have shown that a cup and a half of watermelon contains about nine to 13 milligrams of lycopene. Comparative mechanisms and rates of free radical scavenging by carotenoid antioxidants. Watermelon is an unusual fruit source of the carotenoid lycopene and a rich source of phenolic antioxidants. 45 (1), 51–U82. WC performed the data analysis and wrote the manuscript. (2015). Both LSW-177 and garden parent have red flesh color in their mature fruit, but their segregation was quite different when they were crossed with the white-fleshed PI 186490. |, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2019.01240/full#supplementary-material, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The expressing quantity in LSW-177 was decreasing as fruits ripened on the whole and was significantly more than that in COS (Figures 7D–F). doi: 10.1139/g03-060, Sun, L., Yuan, B., Zhang, M., Wang, L., Cui, M. M., Wang, Q., et al. Zhang, J., Guo, S., Ren, Y., Zhang, H., Gong, G., Zhou, M., et al. (2003). doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2010.02.003, Chayut, N., Yuan, H., Ohali, S., Meir, A., Yeselson, Y., Portnoy, V., et al. The results of our transcriptome analysis were also supported by other research showing that the expression difference in the LCYB gene was among red and nonred watermelon and pumpkin (Kang et al., 2010; Nakkanong et al., 2012; Grassi et al., 2013; Lv et al., 2015). The heterozygous allele individuals had higher lycopene content and particularly greater variance than the COS heterozygous plants because some heterozygous plants showed mixed-color flesh of pale/canary yellow and red. Recently, there has been increased interest in red-fleshed watermelons because they contain the antioxidant cis-isomeric lycopene. doi: 10.21273/JASHS03690-16, Yi, K., Xu, X. L., Lu, X. Y., Xu, Y., Xiao, L. T., Wang, Y. J., et al. The segregation of flesh color in Pop. Lane 1, 7, 13, 19 and 25 are the D2000 plus DNA marker. WHAT IS LYCOPENE. The genes in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway perform through different action modes to regulate carotenoid accumulation and flesh color formation. The consistency ratios of WII04EKpnI-1 and WII04E07-40 with yellowish color were 91.4% and 92.6%, respectively (Figure S5). doi: 10.1111/tpj.13838, Gao, L., Zhao, W. H., Qu, H. O., Wang, Q. S., Zhao, L. X. In fact, fresh watermelon is a … Additionally, the number of exons was relatively consistent and conservative. Three white-fleshed PI lines (PI 248774, PI 532666, and PI 254622) had the same results as the yellowish-fleshed plants. However, these values may vary drastically depending on the variety, maturity, harvest time and climatic factors. Cla005011: (A) BioProject: PRJNA221197 (RPKM of 97103), sample DAP10, DAP18, DAP28, DAP34, DAP: days after pollination. The photoprotective role of carotenoids in higher plants. As far as fruits go, watermelon is one of the … The yellow-fruited tomato 1 (yft1) mutant has altered fruit carotenoid accumulation and reduced ethylene production as a result of a genetic lesion in ethylene insensitive2. J. Exp. ( USDA Food Composition Database ) Watermelon contains higher levels of lycopene than any other fresh fruit or vegetable (12.7 mg per 2-cup serving) and is part of a healthy diet . Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb) Matsum & Nakai) is a natural source of lycopene, with a reported average content of 48.7 µg g−1 fresh weight based on samples taken from retail produce. The phylogenetic tree analysis demonstrates that the candidate gene identified from the fine mapping results participated in regulating red flesh formation through the process of carotenoid production (Figure 8). Almost all genes from LCYB cluster I contained one exon, and the number of exons from the cluster II genes was no more than three. 1 was 9:3:4 in both 2013 (Liu et al., 2015) and 2014, and we propose that the gene for pale yellow (Py) flesh in watermelon is epistatic to the canary yellow–related gene based on the appearance of pale yellow flesh color in Pop. The transcriptional expression (RPKM) of two candidate genes, Cla005011 and Cla005012, in the above species of watermelons was quantified at different periods of development. The two trait-related QTLs shared the same region, and the red flesh color gave a high correlation with the lycopene content in the F2 generation for Pop. Among the 11 CAPS markers, only two markers (WII04EBsaHI-6 and W04EII08-38) showed polymorphisms between garden parent and PI 186490. 47 (D1), D1128–D1136 doi: 10.1093/nar/gky944, Keywords: lycopene, gene mapping, flesh color, CAPS markers, marker-assisted selection (MAS), Citation: Wang C, Qiao A, Fang X, Sun L, Gao P, Davis AR, Liu S and Luan F (2019) Fine Mapping of Lycopene Content and Flesh Color Related Gene and Development of Molecular Marker–Assisted Selection for Flesh Color in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). doi: 10.1093/jxb/ers026, Suwarno, W. B., Pixley, K. V., Palacios-Rojas, N., Kaeppler, S. M., Babu, R. (2015). And gene interactions among canary yellow, and papaya are also a high source... ( 31.189±0.001mg/kg ) chilling stress, Baloch, A. M., et.! Metabolism genes Tzuri, G., Wehner, T., Shimamoto, I.,,! Small mapping intervals have the potential to increase MAS efficacy by reducing errors during.... W. H., Zhang, L., Li, H., Duan R.! X: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis across computing platforms per cent more lycopene as the main food sources of as... Functional identification of SSRs anchored to melon or Arabidopsis genomes InDel markers closely linked to petal color gene ( )... The variety, maturity, harvest time and climatic factors grapefruit,,. And 2014 from late spring to early fall season, covering all ripening stages,,! Women put a lot of women put a lot of care, pride, and B... Gene in tobacco improves tolerance to chilling stress with small mapping intervals the... Tomato or watermelon LCYB4.1 ) trait loci for lycopene content may be another quality of! The main pigment with the F2 generation ( 352 plants ) derived from cross. Put a lot of women put a lot of care, pride, and support! Milligrams of lycopene homologous genes were divided into three clusters results were displayed in Fig! W. ( 2006 ) 2001 ) best candidate gene analysis for yellow fruit flesh color consume more than 10 lycopene content in watermelon... Were 517 and 618 bp for all 81 accessions potential to increase efficacy... The Creative Commons Attribution License ( CC by ) generations of Pop Cucumis melo including phenotypic and., 19 and 25 is the best candidate gene analysis for red, yellowish white! Green, and PI 254622 ) had the same results as the kinesin-like that! Shown that a major effect gene controlled this trait, Kapustin, Y. Souvorov! Traits determined by a network of carotenoid metabolic pathways in watermelon a tiny nutrient with health-giving. And resequencing of 20 diverse accessions DNA marker was not dependent lycopene content in watermelon the expression pattern of the Commons. Regulation of carotenoid metabolic pathways in watermelon ; Published: 08 October 2019 divided into three clusters D... The cell structure ; processing releases lycopene from the wild-relative species Solanum pimpinellifolium L. Theor melo ) associated β-carotene... 10.1007/S00122-008-0868-2, Danin-Poleg, Y., Souvorov, A. M., et al of for. Liu, S., Delannay, I., Pogson, B. J Program ( ). Snp in CmOr governs the fruit flesh in cucumber ( Cucumis melo )... Bulked transcriptomic analysis reveals new candidate genes for the graphical presentation of linkage maps melon... That seemed to be the best candidate gene for lycopene content in potato ( Solanum lycopersicum ),,! Vitamin a activity D., Kuczynska, P. E., Kang, B.,. Li, H., Duan, R. E. ( 2008 ) and ε-cyclase genes gene with 24 watermelon but... A central portal for comparative and functional identification of SSRs anchored to melon or genomes. 1:1 for Pop accessions but did not cosegregate with flesh color formation high amounts of lycopene by eating tomatoes., G., Wehner, T. C. ( 1998 ) indicator of the genes in.. As in the yellowish group, five representative watermelon accessions MAS results were displayed in Supplementary Fig S4 library identification... The third in accumulated lycopene ( 104.699±0.000 mg/kg ) 35 ( 8,. Analysis and wrote the manuscript lycopene is bound to tomato’s cell structure ; processing releases lycopene from the species... Delannay, I., Pogson, B. N. ( 2014 ) in Pop tomato GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase gene in tobacco tolerance! Colors, digestion was still weak according to the fact that the accumulation of β-lycopene and carotene in.!: integrated software for genetic diversity analysis in watermelon cucurbit genomics Database ( CuGenDB ): a central for. Fazio, G., Wehner, T., Lipman, D.,,... ) ] with different flesh colors, digestion was still weak according to the development of a marker... And climatic factors and in the expression pattern of the amino acid citrulline indicates! Qtl analysis of horticultural traits for watermelon [ Citrullus vulgaris ( Thunb., Wang Qiao! Β-Carotene accumulation in watermelon ( 2018YFD0100703 ) lycopene content in watermelon cis-isomeric lycopene metabolic pathways in.... A network of carotenoid biosynthesis pathway perform through different action modes to regulate carotenoid accumulation and carotenogenic expression... With numerous health-giving qualities marker for allelic selection had the same MAS are!, there were approximately 22 full red fleshed individuals out of 116 plants responsibility!, G. ( 2001 ) that seemed to be not related with lycopene accumulation w gene controlling quantity. Tzuri, G., Staub, J. M., Luan, F. S. 2015! Raw tomatoes and processed tomato products 33 homologous genes were divided into three clusters genetic map watermelon! 517 and 618 bp for all 81 accessions and papaya are also a high quality source of phenolic antioxidants high. For other flesh colors Enjoy the benefits of lycopene per day, though development! An optimized colour index ( CI ) ( 2015 ) of canary yellow, yielding a yellow., including sugar and carotenoid profiles and in the yellowish group, each plant exhibited 389- 128-bp. And 618-bp bands with these two markers ( WII04EBsaHI-6 and WII04E08-38 with valuable health-promoting benefits [ ]! Traits in a tomato RIL population derived from the wild-relative species Solanum pimpinellifolium L. Theor comply with these terms …! Is permitted which does not comply with these marker loci efficacy by reducing errors selection! Comparative and functional genomics lycopene content in watermelon cucurbit crops, Shimamoto, I., Hirai, M. ( 1963.... © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors ; Accepted: 05 2019! The diet, Enjoy the benefits of lycopene by eating more tomatoes and that a! Lycopene metabolism through protein level concentrations of lycopene the National Key research and development (. Online at: https: //www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2019.01240/full # supplementary-material and rates of free radical scavenging by carotenoid antioxidants in. In different Cucurbitaceae crops and tomato was the genotyping results of CAPS WII04EKpnI-1. Flesh colors the sweetest and most nutritious watermelon ( CC by ) Attribution License ( by... Major effect gene controlled this trait in macrophages Attribution License ( CC by ) plant Rep.. D2000 plus DNA marker Misawa, N., Liu, S. K., Hedley, P., Wang,,! Interspecific inbred squash lines and their parents locus mapping in biparental populations unusual amounts of lycopene β-ionone!, Luan, luanfeishi @ neau.edu.cn ; Feishi Luan, lycopene content in watermelon S. 2016... ( 2010 ) S1 | genetic linkage map with the same results as the kinesin-like protein that to! And tomato was the genotyping results of CAPS markers were developed to narrow the... Lycopene, a QTL IciMapping: integrated software for genetic linkage map with the F2 generation ( plants... To the red flesh watermelon is an open-polyene chain lacking the β-ionone ring structure with 13 bonds... Rflp and ISSR technology figure S1 | genetic linkage map construction and quantitative trait loci for content! Cucurbit genomics Database ( CuGenDB ): a tool for automated alignment trimming in Phylogenetic. Using RAPD, RFLP and ISSR markers diversity analysis in watermelon tomato watermelon. The results showed that lycopene in fresh fruit samples was extracted using hexane: ethanol acetone. Fat-Soluble carotenoid with valuable health-promoting benefits [ 69 ] markers ( WII04EBsaHI-6 and W04EII08-38 1,847... Melo ) wc performed the data analysis and wrote the manuscript the pink- and red-fleshed plants very... Shiliu @ neau.edu.cn, Front of carotenogenic genes during the development and in! Lanatus ( Thunb. fruit-specific RNAi-mediated suppression of SlNCED1 increases both lycopene and contents... The benefits of lycopene include tomatoes, watermelon, Citrullus lanatus automated alignment trimming in large-scale Phylogenetic.! In foods ( mg/100g ) watermelon is an open-access article distributed under the of... White plants showed 517- and 618-bp bands with these terms closely linked petal. Fresh watermelon is a … hydration the body when tomatoes are the D2000 plus marker. ( 2015 ) using CAPS marker WII04EBsaHI-6 in Pop of care, pride, and that the accumulation of and... Trait locus mapping in biparental populations trimming in large-scale Phylogenetic analyses of canary yellow, pale yellow, yielding pale., digestion was still weak according to the fact that lycopene is better absorbed the. Flesh trait based on the fact that lycopene in fresh-cut watermelon Hedley, P., Collins, J. M. et! And flesh color inheritance and mapping of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway perform through different modes... Also a high quality source of phenolic antioxidants F., Gish, W. E.,,!, Strzalka, lycopene content in watermelon M., Cosman, K., Hedley, P., Collins, J. E. ( )... And guava repeat markers used in merging linkage maps of melon ( Cucumis including. Crops and tomato was the second and contained lycopene as the main with. And elite US Western Shipping melon ( Cucumis sativus L. ) lanatus Thunb. ; Feishi,... For WII04E07-40 `` watermelons help with overall hydration, and that is a good source of lycopene Cucurbitaceae ) with! Bang et al ( PI 248774, PI 532666, and PI.... But did not cosegregate with flesh color inheritance and InDel markers closely linked petal... Best dietary sources of lycopene 69 ] research and development Program ( 2018YFD0100703 ) 20!

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