9. For Tiongson those «polluted theories» should be avoided in the process of reconceptualization of the contemporary Filipino culture. Theater in the Philippines is as varied as the cultural traditions and the historical. 7 Sir Anril Pineda Tiatco, Situating Philippine Theatricality… cit. the fall of Marcos government. Cfr. For all of those artists, who worked together in those hundreds of performances, the common aim was to achieve social and/or political changes. 33Even “simple” things as deciding if a particular play should be staged in English or in Tagalog, Cebuano or Ilocano became meaningful.20 It is worth pointing this out, that this kind of decision is constantly undertaken even today. A Critique on the Asian-ness/Philippine-ness of Philippine Theatre(s), sheds new light on the issue of Filipino postcolonial identity. This is not to say that a Filipino self does not exist or will not emerge as a mature, independent entity in the future, but only that its representations in the film medium must be viewed in light of its colonial past.2, 10We can find similar approaches when we try to speak about postcolonial Filipino theatre, where the inner negotiation of being a (post)colonial country is still vivid. Portrayals of the Filipino Self, «The Humanities Bulletin», 4, 1995, p. 108. 2. But as long as we can speak about a strong influence, which both of those countries had on the Filipino nation and culture, we cannot forget that we can never speak about the entire removal of local traditions and aesthetics. 21 Cfr. URL: http://journals.openedition.org/mimesis/342; DOI: https://doi.org/10.4000/mimesis.342. p. 142. The requirement of being – so called authentic and pure (in this meaning to choose the “Philippine-ness” instead of the “Philippine-nesses”) – occludes the artistic freedom of self-expression and the independence of a particular artist. Maria Delimata, “Contemporary theatre in the Philippines”, Mimesis Journal [Online], 2, 2 | 2013, Online since 01 December 2013, connection on 07 January 2021. However, we may observe similar situations in other postcolonial countries, I do believe that the Filipino case – because of its double colonial identity – deserves particular attention. 30I do not assume, that in the theatre practice, which tends to be political, revolutionary and calling for social and/or governmental changes there is no space left for the individual identity of a particular actor, director or playwright. Maria Delimata, “Contemporary theatre in the Philippines”, Mimesis Journal, 2, 2 | 2013, 48-56. thesis Crucifixions in San Fernando Cutud as a sacral performance. PHILIPPINE THEATER AND DRAMA Plays with Spanish Influence The New Sarswela Comedia/Komedya Zarsuela/Sarsuela *drama as tool for Christianization *drama as pedagogical tool *drama to attract people to the pueblos Predramatic Forms loas, declamaciones, oraciones - … of Brecht (Philippine Educational Theater Association’s translations of The Good Woman of Setzuan, The Caucasian Chalk Circle, The Life of Galileo), but rather as the effect of a long-time process of adaptation, reinterpretation and application of foreign theatre concepts in the field of a local theatre. In a sense Philippine recorded history and nationhood began with its colonizers. The Philippines. Back to Article List ARSENIO “BOOTS” BAUTISTA Philippine Theater Before the Advent of Cinema Long before the coming of cinema in the Philippines, theater originated in the culture of the country’s early societies. Marcos was also involved in the murder of his opposition leader, Benigno Aquino. Maria Luisa F. Torres, Brecht and the Philippines: anticipating freedom in theater, in John Fuegi (ed. The Philippines. The study is exploratory and introductory in nature. Opera incorporates many of the elements of spoken theatre, such as acting, scenery, and costumes and sometimes includes dance. 29But if the main reason to create a political theatre is the social change, is there any space left for the actor to focus on his/her own identity? It referred to the revolutionary character of dramas and plays staged by Filipinos in the beginning of the 20th century. The actual content of the plays frequently dealt with keenly felt current In 2008-2009 studied in University of the Philippines Diliman. 3. The Philippines – because of the difficult and complex history of the country – cannot be con-sidered in a binary differentiation: “Asian” vs. “Western”. Policies. International productions like The Lion King and Mamma Mia came to our shores, bringing plenty of jaw-dropping spectacle. The ritual practitioners in their dance-dramas used imitative dances to propitiate the continue reading → 17 The term has been used by American colonial power authorities. In some places some measures implemented liqour bana. http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/inquirerheadlines/nation/view/20090407-198285/Pabasa-is-for-meditating-not-loud-wailing, accessed on 02.11.2013. 11 In this context the term “performer” or “doer” should be understood in the meaning proposed e.g. …, he number of cases in each locality. Especially Christmas and the Holy Week, of course for the Christian communities,8 is the most important time within the year, when the majority of inhabitants of particular barangay9 or town work together to cultivate special, religious and sacral dedicated, theatre forms. 12 In every region it may be performed on a different day during Semana Santa. The dramatic forms that flourished and continue to flourish among the different peoples by Jerzy Grotowski. Demonstrates understanding of characteristic features of 20th and 21st century opera, musical play, ballet, and other multimedia forms. - 294453 However, in this post colonial climate most Filipinos’ sense of a “truly” Filipino self remains dubious at best and many have found the task of self-discovery elusive. However, the desire to look as mestizo/mestiza should be seen in the contemporary context rather than as a cultural tendency. However, in 1961 Navarro decided to intensify his panata (the religious vow) by performing during the sinakulo the self-flagellation (pamagdarame). How did the philippine opera, ballet and musical plays reflect life in the 20th century? Theatre is one of the cultural elements that best exemplifies Africa. The fact of being colonized in the past cannot be seen as the reason to perceive the country’s culture a less “Filipino” nowadays. Foreign performers, including instrumental virtuosi, as well as opera singers and Spanish zarzuela performers came to the country to perform for enthusiastic audiences. 1. 134-154. First performed at the famed Teatro Zorilla on August 2, 1902, the opera was staged by the renowned Molina-Benito Company. Considering the fact that the Philippine nation still needs to deal with its postcolonial identity, terms, such as “theatre” or “actor”, based on the Western cultural tradition, cannot be easily taken for granted. The comedia. The dramatic forms that flourished and continue to flourish among the different peoples 22 Cfr. Pamela Del Rosario Castrillo, Philippine Political Theater… cit., p. 528. 34In the context of questioning the national self-identity, as well as about the tension between the individual and the group artistic identity, Cecile Guidote-Alvarez, the Filipino “culture caregiver”, might be a good example. The consequences are twofold. b. ), and the second one, the individual identity (of one actor/one particular performance group), where all of those three kinds of theatre traditions exist. 19In my personal opinion, one of the most important foundation for Filipino society is the need for solidarity and cooperation in micro and macro-communities. Moreover, we should not forget that this country – according to Sir Anril Pineda Tiatco in Situating Philippine Theatricality in Asia – «is not only an amalgamation of pre-colonial, colonial, and post-colonial cultures». Until now, PETA has created ca. 1. His article shows how the fact of being a postcolonial nation projects particular questions about the self-identity: Filipino academics and critics often speak of the need to project Filipino values and culture in their popular media. http://petatheater.com/about-peta/, accessed on 28.10.2013. The history of Philippine theatre PHILIPPINE THEATER Theater in the Philippines is as varied as the cultural traditions and the historical influences that shaped it through the centuries. For a time, one of the most popular types of theater in the Philippines was the Moros y Cristianos, which is not surprising for a country that was under Spanish rule for 300 years. 10 I had the chance to participate in both of them during the Holy Week in 2009 and 2011. Log in. According to Tiatco: the theoretical discourse must not be based on a construction of a Philippine theatre identity or the reconstruction of a Philippine theatre identity but on the affirmation of Philippine theatre identities. The Filipino contemporary culture (in this case also theatre) can be seen as a great example for anyone who would like to speak about the postcolonial identity of the nation. Theater in the Philippines is as varied as the cultural traditions and the historical. It continues to push for first-rate quality theater while never taking for granted that the art it produces and teaches always serves a greater purpose.21, 35This group, and its social and political concern, did not end up with i.e. 1. 20 Cfr. Sacral performances refer to religious rituals and the religious vow, to the sacral sphere of “communication” with God. The Philippines were first colonized by Spain (1565-1898) and later (in the 20th century) by the USA. founder of the Philippine Constabulary Band. To rise up a question, if something is “authentic” or “polluted”, is supposed to mean, that someone is able to set up the intransgressible features of a particular culture. 18 The term was used by Pamela Del Rosario Castrillo to describe the Filipino theatre movement and the plays staged in 1965-1968. In 1967 this young Filipino woman, who studied in the USA, came back to her country and created one of the most significant Filipino theatre group ever. 6Moreover, in this article the term “theatre” will not only refer to particular plays staged in official theatre buildings in the Philippines. The paper explores a few cases in the Western world and concludes that theatre has great influence as a communication tool in Western society. 1. 3 According to Sir Anril Pineda Tiatco, who quotes Nicanor G. Tiongson’s seminal essay What is Philippine Drama?, «polluted theories» were those ones which had influenced Filipino theatre during the Spanish and American colonization. Southeast Asian arts - Southeast Asian arts - The folk tradition: Dances in the folk tradition are exceptionally numerous and widespread. In 1955, in San Fernando Cutud (Pampanga province), Ricardo Navarro (often called also Tatang Temyong) wrote his own version of the Passion play, Via Crucis o Passion y Muerte. Background. That means, what is more important in the political theatre, the individual or the group identity? When everyone became a hero and changed Philippine history overnight. 131-132. Names like Aurelio Tolentino, Juan Abad or Juan Matapang Cruz (well-known playwrights, who created at the turn of the 19th and the 20th century, the time of the fight against Spanish and later American oppression)16 are not to be ever forgotten. western influences on philippine art 1. a) Josef Luciano Dans(1805-1888) is the artist whose mural is now one of the most important and oldest murals that survived the test of time in the Phillipines. This way, they become aware of the manifestations of an unjust social order and are able to articulate a longing for justice and faith in change. The Filipino contemporary culture (in this case also theatre) can be seen as a great example for anyone who would like to speak about the postcolonial identity of the nation. It is at the crossroads of the sacred and the profane, orality and the written word, of inner roots and external adjuncts. 5However, it should be admitted that this research has been made by a Polish theatre scholar, who was raised up in a different social and cultural environment (not in the Philippines) and who tried to understand a different theatre reality and tradition, being always aware of her “alien” perspective. Demonstrates understanding of the relationship among music, technology, and media. OpenEdition Journals member – Published with Lodel – Administration only, You will be redirected to OpenEdition Search, The actor in the identity shaping process, Rivista semestrale di studi sulla vita e le forme del teatro, Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement, A digital resources portal for the humanities and social sciences, http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/inquirerheadlines/nation/view/20090407-198285/Pabasa-is-for-medit, http://ask.metafilter.com/145758/Can-I-really-become-famous-in-the-Philippines, http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/inquirerheadlines/nation/view/20090407-198285/Pabasa-is-for-meditating-not-loud-wailing, Creative Commons Attribuzione - Non commerciale - Non opere derivate 4.0 Internazionale, Catalogue of 552 journals. 14 Cfr. influences that shaped it through the centuries. The American … 41. The School of People’s Theater), trains young people (PETA Metropolitan Teen Theater League Program, Children’s Theater Program, Arts Zone Project) and first of all, its performing arm – the Kalinangan Ensemble – regularly stages plays in the PETA Theater Center in Quezon City.22. 1 It is very popular to write about “Spanish tradition” vs. “American influence”. Kenton J. Clymer, Protestant Missionaries in the Philippines, 1898-1916. Make a weekly schedule of how you spent each day in aweek as you start your self learning schooling in the new normal using table, how do you practice media literacy? Spain introduced theatre forms like i.a. A Critique on the Asian-ness/Philippine-ness of Philippine Theatre(s) is, in my personal opinion, one of the most important voices in the contemporary discussion about the identity of Filipino theatre. 23 Rajah Sulayman was the open theatre in the ruins in the Fort Santiago in Intramuros, Metro Manila (in the past Spanish military barracks). Whatever indigenous theatrical forms may have existed in the Philippines, other than tribal epic recitations, were obliterated by the Spanish to facilitate the spread of Christianity.. Classical theater play and opera. Marcos was strongly supported by American government, but in the same time within twenty-three years he created his own regime. 13Even though one would like to distinguish the original “Philippine-ness” or “Filipino self”, or to find out “the Filipino roots”, it should not been forgotten that every culture is shaped in a long-time process; it is not an artefact, a “monument” – once designed and set up – but it is always performed by a particular group of people, in an intensively changed and vivid process, very responsive to social, political and economic tensions. The fight did not only concern the decolonization process (from Spain and later from USA), but also more domestic problems, e.g. OPERA. This drama became for the local community a foundation for a performance, in which one can participate also today. 8 I decided to focus mostly on Catholic sacral performances, because of my personal experience, acquired during the theatre research conducted in the Philippines. Performs selections from musical plays, ballet, opera in a satisfactory level of performance. The Philippine Ballet Theatre is a classical ballet company in the Philippines.The Philippine Ballet Theatre was founded in 1987 out of an alliance of leading dance groups. 15Sir Anril Pineda Tiatco’s article Situating Philippine Theatricality in Asia. The personal choice of Ricardo Navarro, however negotiated within the community, has completely changed the way of thinking how the Good Friday is supposed to be celebrated. in Europe, even if Europeans behave in a quite opposite way, most of the people try to be as much suntanned as possible. how the country and the nation should be leaded after the overthrow of Marcos’ rule. Junior High School. The future of Philippine theater is a bright one, but only if the industry as hosts and we as an audience make the right moves to make it happen. influences that shaped it through the centuries. Size. Sir Anril Pineda Tiatco, Amihan Bonifacio-Ramolete, Cutud’s Ritual of Nailing on the Cross: Performance of Pain and Suffering, «Asian Theatre Journal», 3, 2008, pp. : http://ask.metafilter.com/145758/Can-I-really-become-famous-in-the-Philippines, accessed on 25.10.2013. 7One of the most difficult questions is how the “actor” is categorized and understood in the context of Philippine theatre. If the theatre group is more concerned about social and/or political issues, the individual identity of an actor is not any more so easy to achieve. Besides teaching contemporary drama and theater, in her scholar work she focuses mostly on postcoloniality, gender studies and the connection between history, memory and post-memory, visible in her conference experience and several written articles. 15 Pamela Del Rosario Castrillo, Philippine Political Theater: 1946-1985, «Philippine Studies», 4 1994, p. 532. http://petatheater.com/about-peta/, accessed on 30.10.2013. The themes for these works were mostly influenced by the Spanish colonial rule as well as the American colonization.. Philippine theater is composed of pre-colonial performance traditions as well as colonial influences from Spain and the USA. Her Ph.D. dissertation considers eroticism as an aesthetic in contemporary art and culture. In 2005 PETA has moved into its new building, PETA Theater Center, located in Quezon City, Metro Manila. Philippine Theatre I43 are essentially light operas in prose, and while the Filipino versions, which were written and performed in Spanish as well as various Filipino languages, kept the musical and dance aspects, the characters were all converted into familiar local types. PHILIPPINE THEATER Theater in the Philippines is as varied as the cultural traditions and the historical influences that shaped it through the centuries. Their theatron was on the ground within the community. 37The social and political commitment requires from artists to focus rather on the collaborative goal, and to shape together the group identity, then to centre upon his/her own shine. Poverty, injustice, oppression, graft and corruption became common themes during this period. ), comic operas, and vaudevilles. "Isa pa nga!" Their theatron was on the ground within the community. First, the style of European plays, frequently that of ... that may not be theatre at all as the Western world understands it. The theatre, dance and other performing arts can teach people how to express themselves effectively, and can also be a tool through which people with disabilities can communicate. People Power at EDSA. 8In the postcolonial reality it is impossible to distinct the “original tradition” from the one “influenced” by foreign cultures. and the Philippines' most popular, world-renowned beer goes well with peanuts, corniks, tapa, chicharon, usa, barbecue, sisig, and all manner of spicy, crunchy and cholesterol-rich chasers. After several centuries of being dominated and ruled by Spanish, and later American colonizers, who not only tried to set up their own religion as the major one (with Spain Catholicism, with the USA mostly Protestantism),6 or some forms of culture expressions (e.g. Their influence on Philippine theatre is most apparent through the bodabil (vaudeville) and the plays and dramas staged or translated into English. In much of today’s mainstream Western theatre, we have forgotten theatre’s relationship to religion or reduced it to cliché representations. 13 Cfr. If one considers Filipino theatre as the “Asian”, he/she assumes that “Asian culture” is a homogenized, essential form, that culture of e.g. That is why there is no simple answer for the question if the Philippine culture should been seen more as the “Asian” or more as the “Western” one. Tiatco shows that the binary system – Asian vs. Western tradition – is a cul-de-sac for anyone, who would like to analyse and make a research on the theatre tradition in the Philippines. It was also the first theatrical performance since the revolution. Log in. The following year, Tatang Temyong became the first Filipino who crucified himself and in the next decades he has found many followers. 1. 31But of course Filipino political theatre did not end up by the time of the “seditious plays”.17 As I mentioned above, the second half of the 20th century (and the fight for full independence and democracy) should be also seen as a very crucial moment. On the market there is a whole range of cosmetic products – soaps, creams, make-up foundation – which make the skin brighter. In the 1960s and 70s opera became a very expensive art form to put on, and "difficult" new opera, which inevitably attracted smaller audiences, was more expensive still. 4 A good example in this case might be the discussion on many websites, e.g. Even though it is an activity of the whole community, in some cases we can find out that it turns into a kind of competition for the performers. Performs selections from musical plays, ballet, opera in a satisfactory level of performance. PHILIPPINE THEATER. 2. For decades, it competed with film, radio and television as the dominant form of Filipino mass entertainment. The problem may indeed be that after four hundred years of domination the cultural conceptions and values of their former colonizers have become inextricably enmeshed in the national psyche. 18However, theatre forms like the Passion play re-enactment, or the pabasa (reading/chanting of the Passion) might be considered as the “inheritance” of Spanish colonization, we should not forget about its postcolonial identity, so also its inner diversity and the tension of the “Philippine-nesses” included. It roots its foundation in the use of theater that is distinctly Filipino as a tool for social change and development. In 1986 the Philippines’ external debt exceeded $28.3 billion and in the same time the country was strongly corrupted. 3 Stars and a Sun runs from February 4 to March 26, Tuesday to Friday, 8 p.m., and Saturday to Sunday, 3 p.m. and 8 p.m. at the PETA Theater Center, 5 Eymard Drive, New Manila, Quezon City (725-6244).For more information, visit PETA’s website.. Rebel. But all-original Filipino musicals proved that local talent can shine just as bright. PHILIPPINE THEATER Theater in the Philippines is as varied as the cultural traditions and the historical influences that shaped it through the centuries. Even if we would like to point out particular actors or directors, PETA’s activity will be always seen as the group cooperation. Two of the earliest theatre companies to offer their performances online and for free using their newly launched digital spaces are Tanghalang Pilipino (TP) and Philippine Educational Theatre Association (PETA). Plays featured the labourer and farmer, slum dweller and scavenger using social realism, i.e., the mode that utilizes theater as a lecture platform for purposes of mass education.19. As long as it is assumed as a group activity, it should be considered by every member as his/her personal vow. Nevertheless, one should be aware, that the Philippines cannot be considered only as a Catholic country. the Philippines and Iraq belongs to the same aesthetic system. 9 Barangay is a district or a village, the smallest administrative division. Philippine Opera 2. 26The 20th century in the Philippines has been strongly marked by political events. However, this kind of questioning the “postcolonial identity” assumes that the contemporary culture might be seen as the “authentic” one or, on the other hand, “polluted” by foreign influences.3. Some are performed as religious ritual, others, particularly on the Indonesian island of Bali, by highly trained and respected artists, and still another kind as entertainment in which the community participates. Ph.D. candidate in Drama, Theater and Performance Department (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland). PHILIPPINE THEATER. There is a whole range of many other sacral performances, cultivated in non-Catholic Filipino communities, which might be as well described in the context of the tension between individual and group identities. 3I would like to propose in this article a different perspective, a discussion on two kinds of Philippine theatre identities: the first one, the group identity (national, social, political etc. 8. Portrayals of the Filipino Self focuses on the issue of Filipino identity in the context of the cinema. Each performer tries to create a piece of art, not only for God, but also for the whole community. ASAP SANA MAY SUMAGOT ;(, how important is media literacy to you as a student?, Is the language used formal or informal? An Inquiry into the American Colonial Mentality, Urbana, Chicago 1986. SANA PO MAY SUMAGOT ;(, n. Identify the geometric shapes in the figure below., The government has implemented quarantine measures to limit activities outside their home. It quickly won recognition as a resident ballet company of the Cultural Center of the Philippines.. In 2011 made additional theater and cultural fieldwork in the Philippines (mostly on Luzon) to finalize her M.A. Since the Philippines won the independence from Spain, all the citizens started to be called “Filipino”, and any racial differentiation became officially forbidden. Philippine Opera Started in the Philippines during the 19th Century when Instrumental virtuosis, opera singers, and Spanish zarzuela performers came. Generally conceded as the most important Filipino play in English and one of the most important pioneers of realism in Philippine theater, it is set during the latter half of the year 1941 in the Marasigan house in Intramuros, where spinster sisters Candida and Paula have … 12A good example of how the postcolonial “inheritance” affects today the culture of the Philippines can be found in the issue of mestizo. 9James F. Kenny in Tagalog Movies and Identity. The opera is an art and music form in which singers and The Philippine Ballet Theatre pursues the goal of bringing the art of dance to the general appreciation of Filipino audiences. This kind of division shows that even nowadays it is uneasy to clarify how the Philippine dependency on the USA in the 20th century should be seen, as it was rather a political and/or cultural influence or a hidden effective colonization. 17In the Philippines one may find a long and very diverse tradition of cultivating sacral performances. 16Personally I believe that the plural form, proposed in Situating Philippine Theatricality in Asia. Ballet Manila stages Rebel, a ballet choreographed by London-based Martin Lawrence, in collaboration with musical director Gerard Salonga. Join now. 25The decision to deepen the religious vow may be considered as the transgression of the tradition. Realism in the last half of the 19 th-century began as an experiment to make theater more useful to society.The mainstream theatre from 1859 to 1900 was still bound up in melodramas, spectacle plays (disasters, etc. Nevertheless, for anyone who would like to discuss the issue of the Filipino contemporary theatre, the difficult and very complicated postcolonial history of the country appears as one of the main challenges. In the same time, even if we discuss the “common good”, the artistic freedom does not have to be limited. People in the Philippines used to say that they had spent 350 years in the convent and 50 years in Hollywood. 14The second half of the 20th century (especially after the fall of Marcos government in 1986)5 was the time when many Philippine scholars and artists started to ask about their national identity. On every Good Friday this little town in Pampanga is crowded by people (Filipinos, as well as foreign tourists) who would like to participate in (or just watch) the performance of the self-flagellators, sinakulo, and people being crucified in Kalbaryo.14. 50 points How did western operas influence philippine theater? English. PETA has always been concerned rather as a theatre group than a constellation of Filipino stars. General appreciation of Filipino mass entertainment felt current 40 “ actor ” is categorized and understood in Political! The following year, Tatang Temyong became the first theatrical performance since the.... Nevertheless, one should be avoided in the Philippines has been used by American Colonial power authorities of..., Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong 1989, pp tool in Western society during Holy. Into the American Colonial power authorities into the American Colonial power authorities Castrillo, Philippine Political theater 1946-1985. 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Castrillo, Philippine Political Theater… cit., p. 528 can not be considered by every member as personal... A huge range of very outstanding and fascinating traditions to say that they had spent years! All: influence of western plays and operas on philippine theater language and the religious vow may be performed on different. And costumes and sometimes includes dance methods include Agitprop method, Forum method and participatory theatre staged 1965-1968. Theater and cultural fieldwork in the context of the sacred and the religious vow, to general. Programs ( i.a time of the most important Filipino actors and directors Philippine theatre is apparent... Considered only as a tool for social change and development cultivating sacral performances refer religious.: anticipating freedom in theater, in John Fuegi ( ed opera incorporates many of the Self. 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